Grumblers, Malcontents, Activists. Does Ritual Complaining Lead to Political Activism?
Urban movements are good example to research the complex relation between the ritual complaints and political mobilization. The difficulty that we face here concerns the nature of reported claims. Dissatisfaction of xenophobic groups with the influx of migrants representing a different culture or religion, although organized as a social movement is not usually referred to the term of “urban movement”. In that sense “right to the city” does not mean “right to complain” automatically. It is worth to examine then, in what sense urban middle class belong to the "ritual complaining class" ("klagende Klasse", see Lepenies 1992) and if it has the ability to organizing political change around urban issues.