Systems Theory and Governing: Towards a Sociological Theory of Societal Efforts
Jan Kooiman’s “sociocybernetic” theory of governance provides us a set of technical terms to describe societal efforts. He formulates people’s practice to achieve common goals as “governing”. How can sociological theory, especially social systems theory, formulate societal governing from its own perspectives? Niklas Luhmann prepares a specified category for protest movements (social movements) as one of four types of autopoietic social systems. However, while actors of movements and resolvers of targeted problems are often separated in protest movements (for instance, civic protesters and government), actors in societal efforts are trying to be resolvers. Despite the difference between nature of protest movements and societal efforts, Luhmann’s theory of protest movements can be a good starting ground to elaborate the concept of societal efforts from a perspective of sociological theory.