An Extended Model of Vulnerability
Basically, our extension of the vulnerability model distinguishes between two levels of vulnerability. The first level emprises the etiology of an impairment, we actually do not identify in any of the diagnostic systems. The second level comprises the interaction between the life-world of people with such impairment and the institutional systems of society as well as the conditions in the everyday life of people. This is the level where the social problems of these people can be identified and these social problems are the main indicators in the diagnostic systems.
On both levels neurological, psychological and sociological factors can be defined. Current research on neurological variations with respect to communicative abilities and the influence on the brain of stressors as well as a known diversity in normal psychological development can be related to current and classical sociological theories on stigma, symbolic interaction, discourses and communication. The paper will outline some of these cross disciplinary considerations, its emerging trends and possible solutions.