The Context, Process and Consequence of Positive Action Policy for Gender Equality in Academia in the Japanese Government and Universities
Two conditions of Japan are behind the policy in the presenter’s point of view. The first is the underrepresentation of women and the need for gender equality in Japanese academic institutions. Japan established the equal opportunity employment law in 1972, and the treatment of women in the labor field improved; however, female participation in politics and academia remains low. Second is a future shortage of human resources in Japan, due to Japan having a super-aged society, and the fact that scientific publications and a Japanese presence in science has dropped. The government is thus exploring the utilization of women as potential human resources to rectify these issues.
As the result of the policy, the ratio of female academics has increased and reached 22.3% in 2015. However, the context, process and consequences of the policy have not yet been investigated. This presentation utilizes government documents and tertiary institutions literature to examine in what context and justification for the the policy. How have institutions applied the policy, and what are the consequences for academia and Japanese society?