Engineering Activities in Russia: Historical and Methodological Approach

Monday, 11 July 2016
Location: Hörsaal 4C G (Neues Institutsgebäude (NIG))
Distributed Paper
Elena Y. IVANOVA, Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Features of engineering activities in Russia and processes of formation of engineering dynasties have been considered in a multidimensional social field, taking into account the influence of the state and the market in the context of historical change.

 Dynasty as a special reality of social life is studied on the basis of a multidisciplinary approach (sociology, history, economics, and psychology).

Professional continuity in the field of engineering is, first, the choice of a particular educational strategy that will enable repeat the social position of the ancestors, secondly, the choice of a specific life strategy, which can be viewed from the standpoint of inheritance from our ancestors, and, thirdly, the choice of intellectual strategy, which provides the intellectual continuity in the form of preserving scientific schools and technology trends.

Identification of  the social characteristics of engineering dynasties at different stages of historical development of Russia, as well as evaluation of the impact of socio-economic and political conditions of the existence  this phenomenon are an important area of sociological research.

Note the following main factors of development of engineering activities: the creation of an effective system of higher engineering education and provision of the necessary social and economic conditions for the adaptation and professional development of graduates in certain professional circles.

Engineering dynasties in Russia were part of the professional elite until the 90-ies of the twentieth century. At the present time in conditions of economic and social instability there is a significant reduction of the role and importance of professional continuity, social, economic and cultural statuses of the engineer.

At the federal level does not stipulate mechanisms assigning the status of a professional engineer, rights, duties and responsibilities of engineers, there is no formalized system of standards and rules of professional engineering activities.