Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Russia: To the Question of New Forms of Social Inequality

Monday, 16 July 2018: 19:30
Oral Presentation
Elena BOGOMIAGKOVA, Saint Petersburg University, Russian Federation
Liudmila GERASHCHENKO, Federal State Budgetary Institution «Federal Scientific Center оf Rehabilitation of the Disabled Named after G. A. Albrecht» of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation, Russia
Marina LOMONOSOVA, St.-Petersburg State University, Russia
The paper is devoted to consideration of social consequences of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). ART has become common practice in many countries today and raise many medical, social, ethical, political questions, often leading to controversial and sometimes inaccurate opinions about the outcomes of pregnancies resulting from these techniques. Despite the fact that initially, these medical technologies were designed to smooth out the natural, biological inequality, their implementation and using have led to the emergence of new forms of social inequality. Using statistics data from both Russian Goskomstat and the Russian Association of human reproduction, as well as conducting secondary data analysis, we analyze the emerging new forms of social inequality. The main criterion for the production of inequality is affordability of ART. Despite the existing legislative regulation of the availability of ART in Russia, the implementation of reproductive rights and using these methods of human reproduction are determined by socio-economic and financial status of the person. In some cases, gender, ethnicity also are of importance. In Russia, it is also possible to highlight the regional disparities. Differences in access to ART induce new forms of social mobility, both at global and regional levels. «Reproductive tourism» develops. ART also contribute to emergence of a new biological inequality and genetic discrimination, thanks to such a method as preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This method contributes to symbolic discrimination against people with disabilities and their families in the present. We can also speak about reproductive bioeconomics, where the reproductive labor e.g. surrogate motherhood is a central element and reproductive material (donorship) are main objects to be exchanged. In the most cases customers of the reproductive market are from developed countries and suppliers accordingly are from developing economies, so we can suggests a new form of colonialism and exploitation.