Testing Measurement Equivalence across Nations: An Empirical Investigation of Environmental Concerns
We conduct confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) across many axes of comparison (pooled, by region, and for individual countries) given their salience in setting the stage for multigroup comparisons using CFAs (MGCFAs) (Bollen 1989). Establishing equivalence, defined in this study as configural and metric invariance for hierarchy of invariance tests, is vital for this study as MGCFAs enable the testing of to what extent environmental risk perception is invariant across the regions and the 37 countries in the 2010 ISSP data. After establishing measurement equivalence of the latent construct, we investigate how a core set of predictors including individual education, socio-demographics, environmental beliefs and attitudes, willingness to make environmental sacrifices, and personal efficacy shape environmental risk perception across nations. Results from structural equation modeling with latent variables (SEMLV) reveal that the model is robust across nations, yielding insights for future comparative work.