Educational Expansion from the 1990s Under Deregulation and Rising Inequality in Japan
This substantial demographic shift transformed Japanese school education from examination hell to the next stage: the schooled society (Illich, 1971). Following this deregulation and loosening competition, the Japanese enrollment rate for tertiary education expanded dramatically from 30% to over 50% between 1990 and 2010. In other words, Japan entered the universal stage in higher education, in Trow’s terms. In contemporary times, issues afflicting Japanese youth in relation to higher education seem to have shifted from the transition problem to other problems, such as the cost of higher education and students having to balance study with temporary jobs.