Stars, Hearts, Smileys, Buttons or Grids: How to Design Rating Scales
In an experiment, we randomly distributed respondents over a five-point Likert scale, varying the response format. We use traditional radio buttons, fully clickable tiles, grids, and visual response options such as smileys, stars, and hearts.
We discuss responses quality indications such as response rates, frequency distributions, satisficing, primacy effects, and respondents' evaluation of the survey. In addition, we compare surveys across devices: regular desktop PC, tablet, and mobile phone. We focus on special populations in our discussion on which formats works best for which population.
Data come from the panel of Internetspiegel. This panel consists of civil servants in the Netherlands. Preliminary results show that smileys work best.