Repositioning Epistemology; Radicalizing Realism
Accordingly, we seek to develop a critical realist social epistemology. While it is indeed the case that all knowledge is fallible, it is also the case that all knowledge is positioned, it has a particular standpoint. What is more, the social, power relations between standpoints organize the production of truth in ways that produce systematic distortions (ideology). Grasping this point, far from a rejection of ontology, helps to extend the original promise of critical realism. Just as we must avoid the epistemic fallacy of reducing ontological questions to epistemology, we must equally avoid the ontic fallacy of reducing epistemological questions to ontology. But without reducing one to the other, we must further avoid radically separating ontology and epistemology to begin with, recognizing instead their mutual influences.