Andy Furlong and Japanese Young People
Young people in the late modernity with precarious condition and unpredictable future suffer from the four As’: anxiety, anomie, alienation and anger (Standing 2011). Standing argues that young people’s anger will lead to political mobilisation. However, Furlong suggested another potential reaction, in which “young people withdrawing and suffering psychologically by their circumstances to their own actions rather than linking them to external forces’ (2015, 29). He argued “the neoliberal discourse that underpins education and labour market policy promotes individualized responses, and therefore promotes self-blame rather than externally directed anger” (2015.29). For Furlong, many of Japanese young people seemed to suffer from severe self-blame instead of anger directed to government and employers.
We will examine Furlong’s assumption with our longitudinal data, and also the socio-cultural background of Japan.