Educational Opportunities of Immigrant Children in Japan: Evidence from National Population Census Data
This study found that enrollment rates of primary and lower secondary schools are over 95%, regardless of nationality and survey year. However, there is an inequality in upper secondary school enrollment and attendance rates for different nationalities, with Southeast Asian and South American children being most disadvantaged. These disparities also remain after consideration of the children’s socio-economic background. Indeed, international mobility is negatively related to the school enrollment and attendance rates of immigrant children. In addition, the relationship between parents’ status and school enrollment is weaker for immigrant children than for Japanese-born children. These findings imply that first-generation immigrant children are disadvantaged in terms of educational opportunities, and parental resources do not favorably impact immigrant children’s education.