Environmental Injustice and Social Interrelationship: Examples from Illegal Logging Issues of Tropical Timber
This study focuses on the tropical timber producing area of Malaysia’s state of Sarawak, and the consumption site of Japan by a “follow-the-thing-approach” to understand where the tropical timber comes from and where it goes. The data for this study is also based on the both participant observation and interviews. In the background to the various problems involved in illegal logging and timber trade becoming visible were the activities by NGOs. At the same time, we cannot overlook the actions over many years of the indigenous people who have continued to resist on the ground. In the EU, the United States, and Australia, laws to prevent the distribution of illegally logged timber are already enforced. Japan’s legal system has developed accordingly. However, a question mark still remains in its effectiveness. It is necessary to look into the victimizers/victims relationships and its mechanisms in illegal logging issues.