Japanese Female Self-Initiated Expatriates As Labour Market Makers
In this paper we argue that the results of these transactions help to understand the nexus betseen the development of SIEs’ career and the diversified global labour markets. One prominent source of diversification is the country of origin of MNCs that have the major influence upon their subsequent expatriate transactions. Though Japanese MNCs are not seen by them as preferable counterparts in these transactions, working as local hired employees in subsidiaries of Japanese MNCs is an easier option for Japanese female SIEs because of the advantage they have regarding Japanese language and culture. However, such involvements seldom meet their career aspirations, as they are often under-valued for their actual competencies. In non-Japanese labour market, employment is strongly conditioned by the host country’s visa policy requiring higher professional qualifications, and therefore Japanese SIEs who meet these condition, will be part of the construction of new global labour markets.