Tourism and Violence
This session calls for thoughtful contributions on issues of violence in respect of the following potential themes: tourism and religion, tourism and sexuality, tourism and gender, tourism and exploitation, tourism and exclusion, and a combination of these phenomena of life, or on other topics not listed here.
The roots of liberal democracy encompass violence (Mishra 2017). A critical view on the concept of regression may be part of the discussion. The same holds for the concept of cultural clash in the context of a historic approach, and the reaction on colonialism and imperialism. Regarding current violence and terrorism the “western world” might be modest (c.f. the history of anarchistic terrorism in Europe in the 19th century, or the Raf (Germany) and the Red Brigades (Italy) in the 20th century). On the other hand, and relevant because of the impact for tourism, the destruction of cultural heritage seems to be specific in the 21st century. Nevertheless, in general theories about violence should play a role while discussing the theme tourism and violence. Some examples: on macro level: social conflict theories, primordialism (c.f. Conteh-Morgan, Earl 2003), constructivist (c.f. Varshney, Ashutosh). On micro level: relative deprivation (c.f. Gurr, Ted 2011), collective action theory (c.f. Opp, Karl-Dieter 1986), greed versus grievance (c.f. Collier, Paul; Hoeffler, Anke 2004).
Approaches in terms of (e.g.) colonization versus post-colonization & de-colonization and/or singular versus multiple identities (ethnic, national, trans) may be useful as theoretical points of departure.