Long-Term Civilizing Processes within Multi-State-Civilizations. a First Step Towards an Evolutionary Sociological Approach of International Relations.
The second approach to the term »civilization« is linked with Herders’ idea that the world consists of different »cultures« side-by-side. Thus, there are »civilizations« in the plural. Following this approach, Adam Watson and other scholars of the so-called »English School of Realism« systematically focussed on multi-state civilizations, like the early Mesopotamian system of city-states. Michael Mann developed also a comparative design in order to analyze multi-state-civilizations. However, this approach does not provide a model to link the macro- and micro relationships within such multi-states-civilizations.
Therefore, this paper tries to discuss the possibilities to combine both types of approaches. The argument will be grounded on the historical comparison between three different multi-state-civilization: a) the ancient greek system of city-states; b) the Western European networks of kingdoms, duchies, and counties; and c) the modern Western state-system that developed since the Peace of Westphalia. It will be argued that there are some common characteristic in the regulation of warfare and collective violence between these multi-state civilizations. One important characteristic is the differentiation between established political entities and outsiders.