Income Inequalities in Brazil: Changes in the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century
Unequal income distribution in Brazil, a country that is still one of the most unequal in the world, hasn’t been news for some time now, as a number of different authors have registered. The unequal distribution rates affect families’ living conditions, especially amongst the poor. That is why it is so important to continually evaluate the impact of income inequality on current Brazilian social conditions. The aim of this study is to analyze the general determining factors implied in the changes observed in domestic per capita income or just plain domestic income in the last decade. We have taken into analysis the period between 2001 and 2011, giving special emphasis to: 1) evolution and change in domestic per capita income inequalities in Brazil: national and international structural characteristics; 2) domestic income inequalities as characterized by sex; 3) regional aspects of domestic per capita income inequality; 4) social stratification and domestic per capita income in Brazil; and 5) the impact of socio-economic factors on domestic income. The analysis was undertaken using the results of the National Domiciliary Research by Sample – IBGE’s micro-data (PNAD. Methodologically, the study aggregates two kinds of analysis. The first kind is a description of average domestic income variables; average per capita domestic income, sex, and occupation. The second is a linear regression used to test the effects of each independent variable (sex, age, race, educational experience, International Socio-economic Index of Occupational Status (ISEI), social protection, region and rural/urban, on the dependant factor, namely domestic income.