Income Disparity Among Elderly People in Japan: Life Course Factors on Retired Life
The main results are; (a) in Japan the income of the male elderly is mainly composed of working income and pension, while capital income is quite negligible. (b) Gini coefficient within age group is larger for the groups aged 60 or more than for two groups of 50’s, mainly because of the fact that for the elderly the proportion of those with only meager income is large. (c) After 65, the main source of income becomes pension (more than 2/3 of total income), though exceptional cases are blessed with significant amount of working income (mainly administrative or self-employed.) (d) The overall income inequality among the retired reflects the inequality in pension. (e) The main factors on the pension inequality are education and occupational career characteristics at working age, but controlling for the latter the effect of education is largely reduced. (f) The important occupational career characteristics are the size of company and the experience of executive post. (g) Because the single earner family model had been prominent for the cohorts of our survey respondents, a basically similar conclusion is derived for household income.