The Statistical Construction of Alterity: Governing National Population By Numbers in France and Germany (1860-1900)
In the first step I will argue that the historical development of official statistics in the 19thcentury in France and Germany led to its use in both countries as a governing tool to administrate population, but in different national ways. In the second step the paper recontextualizes and deconstructs the statistical categories of foreigners and citizens, to show how official statistics took part in the historical process of nation building.
Scientific journals (Journal de la Société de Statistique de Paris, Zeitschrift des königlich preussischen statistischen Bureaus and Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv) between 1860 and 1900 form the empirical basis of the study. About 160 articles on migration statistics have been qualitatively analysed in order to sketch the statistical discourse about migration as well as the discursive construction of German and French nations by statisticians.
The author gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Scientific Commission of the IEP Grenoble, the Doctoral School SHPT of the University of Grenoble and the Potsdam Graduate School.