Jihadist Movements in Africa from Local, Regional and Global Perspectives
Such violent movements founded in many countries of Africa which can be classified as two types: 1st type are branches of Al-Qaeda, established by former Arab mujahedeen fighters in Afghanistan in many north African states such as - the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Al-Qaeda in Maghreb (with its sub-organizations Al-Qaeda in Mali, Al-Qaeda in Mauritania, Al-Qaeda in Morocco and Al-Qaeda in Sudan) and Libyan Islamic Fighting Group. The second type are sectarian violent groups founded independently from Al-Qaeda but gradually attracted and developed working relations with Al-Qaeda and accepted as part of the organization, such as Al-Shabaab in Somalia and Boko Haram in Nigeria (a movement now spread to Niger, Cameroun and Chad in those areas inhabited by communities of Kanuri nation). The activities of these jihadist movements recorded in 19 states of Africa (Hans Krech 2011).
In the first place, the paper analysis the internal problems of these countries from economic, social and political points of view: unemployment, lack of secular education, the corruption of political and military elite.
Secondly, Western states influence the violent conflict in Africa in order to promote their geo-strategic interests in Africa’s precious natural resources and to expand their military bases in Africa in the name of fighting against the so called global terrorism.
Finally, I will discuss what should be done to solve this problem from African indigenous conflict resolution perspective.