The Who & the How - Insights on Inclusion in Tourism in Brazil's Northern Littoral Pleasure Periphery (LPP)
The aim of this paper is to provide empirical insights on the who and the how of inclusion in Brazil's northern LPP using a mixed-methodological approach. Quantitative value chain analysis (VCA) was adopted to identify who is and how they are included in the tourism value chain. This was followed by a qualitative photo-elicitation project which explored people's perspectives on tourism in terms value of tourism-related income, individual opportunities and challenges, and wider societal benefits and costs. Tourism development is highly valued by local people, because it brought an improved standard of living - in particular, through income generation and provision of infrastructure, health care and education. However, tourism in Brazil's northern LPP strongly mirrors classical disparities between the White and Black, the North and South, the Rich and Poor. Local people with a mainly Black Afro-Brazilian background have low-income jobs in hotels or pousadas without professional development opportunities, whereas owners and managers are dominantly White Brazilians from the South or expatriates from Europe.