Innovations in Education.
the Role of Innovations in Education and Society in São Paulo, Brazil
With the purpose to provide a better comprehension of the sociological and educational phenomenon of innovations in contemporary societies since innovation has been mainly denoted with technological changes (Rey and Tancredi, 2010; Zapf, 1991, 1989; Schumpeter, 1949); but also, to recognize the gaps in the system of education that innovators try to attend.
The theoretical framework is based on the concepts of Innovation as: new forms of organization (Mumford 2002; Zapf, 1989; Kesselring and Leitner, 2008; Huberman, 1973); better solutions for problems (Cels, Nauta, Jong, 2012; Neumeier, 2012; Howaldt and Schwarz, 2010; Hochgerner, 2009); improved ways of social relations (Moulaert, 2005; Mumford 2002); and change in the distribution of local power (Hämäläinen, Heiskala 2007; Moulaert et. al. 2005; Vera, 2010).
Methodology consist on a qualitative two-case-study conducted through 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews to managers and coordinators of an NGO, to administrators and teachers of a primary school, as well as the Regional Ministry of Education.
Initiatives on innovation in Education in São Paulo mainly respond to state omissions; and the case studies shows that whereas innovations among the NGO construct their major social capital among governmental agencies, schools innovations do it through community. Initiatives on innovation have differentiated nature, even though most of them are oriented to innovate in their context, they pursue in a less amount deeper changes.
The significance of this paper contributes to explore innovations not only as a sociological phenomenon, but also as an educational one, what also demands innovative methods in the study of these social initiatives and its motivations.