Income Inequality Among Families with Children in the Society with Low Fertility Rates: Focusing on Japan with a Cross-National Perspective
In order to make the situation of Japan clear, I employ cross-national comparison in this study. The data that I use are the Comprehensive Survey of People’s Living for Japan and Luxembourg Income Studies for other societies. The societies I compare with Japan are Germany, Spain, Taiwan, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Japan, Germany, Spain and Taiwan have low fertility rates, and the others relatively high. Three aspects are particularly discussed in my analyses: the degree of income inequality among families with children, the re-distribution between families with and without children, and the impact of a mother’s income in explaining income inequality.
I find that a low re-distribution between families with and without children and a low contribution of the mother’s work to household income are closely related to low fertility rates and high levels of income inequality among families with children. It appears, based on my analyses, that a lack of variation in the way to provide economic wellbeing to children is closely related to a high degree of income inequality and to a low fertility rate.