The Inequality of Digital Learning Among Students in Rich and Poor Countries
Despite the fact that digital access in schools has been greatly improved in a wide range of countries, my research finds persistent between-school digital inequalities that are more pronounced in low-income countries. In affluent countries, however, digital technology in schools produces greater benefits when students attend resource-rich, elite schools rather than schools with a majority of low-income and disadvantaged students. I connect these findings with discussing the importance of school cultural processes and institutional settings (e.g., teacher expectations, administrative actions) from research on social stratification and inequality in explaining inequalities between poor schools and elite schools. I also discuss how globalization as well as the emergence of knowledge society may generate inequality in schools differently between rich versus poor countries.